The Process of Making Banknotes

 Rupiah banknotes that were used, were not made in an easy way. It takes a lot of process to make paper money for good quality and meet the specifications.

Perum Peruri is the only company capable and authorized by Bank Indonesia (BI) to print genuine banknotes. How is the process?

In one of the industrial areas in Karawang, precisely Parung Mulya village, there is a factory area of ​​202 hectares. That factory is the mint-money maker now. In total, there are 45 machines that make money in this division.

Head of Money Production Division Peruri, Slamet Haryono explained, the beginning of the manufacture of paper money is from the process of engraving. This is a process that includes design and drawing. The process is done by Peruri with the recommendation of the picture given by BI.

To make the design alone, it takes 2-3 months, because the image is in the process of engraving it is not just any image, but the image is made from pure lines made using the computer.

Process in making money:

Offset printing is the process of printing, like the screen printing on both sides of paper money with the basic color of the money. After offset printing, continued intaglio printing process, which is a refinement process of offset printing. Here, one machine will print the hologram color on the money.

The intaglio printing process is more complicated than offset printing, because one machine runs only one side of a bill, unlike offsets that can work on both sides at once.

“Intaglio was 2 times offset,” he said.

The two processes can not be done simultaneously. Because they have to wait for dry ink so that the color is not faded or dirty.

Following the process, money printing continues into the storage and inspection process. Well, in the process of this inspection will be known where the money is worthy or not. Unsafe circulation is usually due to uneven inks, imperfect coloring or folded papers. The money will be marked and bundled in order not to circulate.

“The failing rate is 10%,” he said.

After that, the next process is the process of numbering, or giving a number on the money that has been printed, then back again done the inspection, when there are money-money wrong print serial number.

The banknotes through the process are still bilyet with prints in large paper, about two pages of newspaper, or 45 sheets of paper money.

After the process, then the money is still in the form of large sheets of paper were cut into pieces using the machine and compiled and packed.

“Then after that manual finishing and packaging,” he said.

Peruri’s finishing manual is performed by Peruri employees who are tasked with checking, compiling, and stacking the paper money to be ready to be sent to BI, including the failed money. From the whole, it can take up to 6 days to complete the process.

Raw materials in the form of special paper obtained only from BI. So that money print can not be added or reduced. Therefore, money that fails production must be sent to BI. This year, Peruri will be printing paper money as much as 9.3 billion bilyets or pieces of various fractions.

How much is a Google stock worth?

The tenth anniversary of the giant in stock market with a value that is multiplied by 17 times

The US multinational company of products and services related to the Internet, technological devices, software and social network G +, which has more than 300 million active users, began as a university project in 1996 at Stanford University and, today, has The most visited search engine in the world, and everyone who uses the internet knows Google.

The company was listed on the stock exchange on August 19, 2004. The proposed initial offering was 25.7 million shares, but they put 19.6 million shares outstanding and the price range from 85 to 95 dollars per share , A stock market value that reached 23,000 million dollars.

Today and ten years after its first listing on the NASDAQ has multiplied its value by 17, it has soared more than 1.275%, reaching 398.1 billion. The company records only two exercises with falls throughout its life in the stock market.

In October 2013 their titles exceeded $ 1,000 for the first time. This led to a splitting of securities by its founders, Lawrence Edward “Larry” Page and Sergei Mijáilovich Brin, whereby each stock was divided into two (Class C securities) and which, in addition to lowering the listing price in The market, gained more control over the company, because the new bonds are non-voting that diminishes the power of shareholders and provide greater liquidity to the company.

The stock price of Google shares moves around $ 580, exactly 586.86 dollars on August 19, 2014 and according to valuations of experts and investment firms can reach 670 dollars.

Most of the large analytical firms (approximately 80%) bet on the purchase, against a minority who prefer to bet on holding the stock in the portfolio. This optimism that accompanies most of the experts has been strengthened in recent weeks, Tigress Financial Partners is keen to buy strong.

Finance Definition

According to the dictionary of the Royal Spanish Academy (RAE), the term finance comes from French finance and refers to the obligation that a subject assumes to answer the obligation of another person. The concept also refers to flows, goods and public finances.


In everyday language the term refers to the study of the circulation of money between individuals, companies or individual states. Thus, finance appears as a branch of the economy that is dedicated to analyzing how funds are obtained and managed. In other words, finance is in charge of money management.

The notion of personal finance refers, in principle, to the money a family needs for subsistence. The person should analyze how to obtain such money and how to protect it in unforeseen situations (such as a job dismissal). Other applications of personal finance refer to the ability to save, to spend and to invest. Within this branch of finance, they are looking for alternatives for the lives of individuals in a society to advise them how to invest their money in order to achieve a positive balance, where losses decrease and, through a Sustainable economy, collaborate with the environment and increase the quality of life.

Corporate finance, for its part, focuses on the ways companies have to create value through the use of financial resources. Investment, financing, profits and dividends are some of the concepts linked to this area.

Related concepts

Finance There are a number of concepts whose meaning allows you to understand even more the movement of money and the way in which finances are organized. Some of them are listed below.

* Risk and benefit: refers to the search for an increase in profits without investing more than advisable, that is, minimizing the risks of investment. If the investor is willing to face greater uncertainty, his profits may be greater;

* Value of money in time: refers to the fluctuation that lives the money over time, that is to say the change that represents between the present and the future (money, when it is invested it acquires a future value potentially greater than that Today owns). Over time, money has been a fundamental element for the economic growth of the countries, however, the increase of inflation and certain state strategies that are of little benefit to the finances of the territory, Over time, therefore, money instead of charging a higher value, loses it.

* Interest rate or interest rate: the value that is paid for the funds requested in loan, which responds to the exchange between the current value of money and the value of the money in the future (speculation). When the interest rate rises both consumption and investment decrease as citizens lose the capacity to pay their debts, therefore, when they decrease, those elements increase when receiving a significant stimulus to be able to pay less interest. This concept is very present in those that outline macroeconomic policies when trying to boost economic growth; However, it is extremely dangerous because in many cases it leads to severe economic problems in the future, because it can not bear the costs that the “citizens’ debt” has left uncovered for a certain amount of time.

Finally, we can say that public finances are related to the fiscal policy of a State. The government obtains funds through the collection of taxes and that money reinvests it into society through public spending (with the construction of hospitals and schools, cleaning care, etc.).

Banco Popular denies that “there is a risk of bankruptcy” or that it prepares an urgent sale

The entity indicates to the CNMV that it is still preparing its capital increase or a “corporate transaction”

Banco Popular has issued a statement to the securities regulator, the National Securities Market Commission, in which it denies that it is experiencing liquidity problems. The entity has explained that it has “different advisers” for its already announced plans for a capital increase or “a corporate operation”. But he denies that it is to make an urgent sale. The company has lost 6.64% of its value on Thursday, the biggest drop of the day in the Ibex 35.

“In relation to the news published today in a digital medium, Banco Popular Español, SA categorically denies that it has ordered the urgent sale of the bank.” It denies that there is a risk of bankruptcy. Other financial institutions the imminent need for funds in the face of a massive leak of deposits, “the statement said.

The communication comes after El Confidencial published this afternoon that it had hired JPMorgan and Lazard to carry out an urgent sale “because of the risk of bankruptcy” and that it tried to avoid bankruptcy before “a massive leak of deposits from customers “. “The article therefore disseminates false premises and data,” the entity tells the CNMV.

“At the end of the quarter, as reported last week, the bank’s equity was 10.777 billion euros and the total capital ratio stood at 11.91%, above regulatory requirements. That there is data from the Spanish Banking Association that the bank lost 6,000 million euros of deposits in January. Nor is it true that the Bank has abandoned the processes of divestment of non-strategic assets initiated, which follow its Normal course, “he says.

On the sale to another entity, he explains that the bank’s strategy, “communicated by its president at the Ordinary General Shareholders’ Meeting on April 10”, remains “unchanged”, and the bank is working on its development, “which Includes the potential realization of a capital increase or a corporate operation.To that end, the Bank has several specialized advisors who will support it in the development of said strategy.The whole organization of Banco Popular continues to develop its banking activity within the usual framework “, Add. The Bank asserts that it reserves the right to take appropriate legal action.

Contradictory rumors in the market

However, according to market sources, Saracho has had talks with different bank presidents who have raised the possibility of selling the bank to them. This Thursday the entity fell 6.64% on the Stock Exchange, although in the last five sessions accumulated a rise of 21%, due to rumors of sale.

Saracho has been chairman since January, but says he needs to be able to get the money he needs, but he says he needs to be able to pay for it. Until the summer to realize the numbers.It is too long for an entity that is in the eye of the hurricane. ” These sources also consider it contradictory for the president to hold talks with competitors “if he does not know his true hole. How can you negotiate if you can not determine how much an entity is worth?” They conclude.

Portugal already has a plan to reduce debt by 39%

The study does not raise pardons but postponement of payments and interest reduction

Portugal can reduce its debt from the current 130.7% to 91.7% if payments are postponed to 60 years and interest is reduced to 1%. The plan is not of the Government, reluctant to any unilateral initiative, but its socialist party and the Left Block, which supports it in parliament.

The Government does not want to hear about debt restructuring, but it nevertheless gave permission to set up a parliamentary committee to study a reduction plan. It was not his initiative, but a demand of the Left Bloc in exchange for giving him parliamentary support for the entire legislature. After a year of meetings, the plan is completed and sent to the Government.

In short, the study to restructure debt is based on not touching the debt that affects private funds and the IMF. For the rest, payments would be extended from the current average 15.6 years to 60, and interest rates would fall from the current 2.4% on average to 1%.

Apart from the measures that depend on negotiations with third parties, the working group presents four that are of full power of the Government: a reduction of the provisions of the Bank of Portugal, which the Government considers excessive and with which the State would have more annual dividends ; An advance payment to the IMF, which has the highest interest loans; The optimization of state deposits and the reduction of the average duration of debt issued. Altogether, the application of these measures would save the state 451 million this year (0.20% of GDP) and 2,788 million in 2022.

To conciliate the speeches of the ruling socialist party and the vociferous Left Bloc (NATO exit, debt forgiveness …), the language of study measures every word; For that reason it is not a plan, but “merely an example of the type of restructuring that would be possible”, but also warns that to continue with the current level of debt will have to increase taxes or reduce social services.

The plan would only be activated in a joint negotiation within the European Union

By virtue of this balance between the different forces that make up the working group, at no time does the debt forgiveness of part of the debt be considered, “nor would it be a breach, but would be done in agreement with the European partners.”

Reactions to the plan have not been delayed. The Government completely disassociates itself from it, although its deputies by have participated to the undersecretary of finance, and the PC, the other party that supports the Government in Parliament, calls it “micropopuestas”, with solutions “equal to others” Do not respond to the “deep problems”, according to deputy Paulo Sá. Reactions expected, because the PC was not going to applaud an idea of ​​the Left Block, its electoral competition.

Definition of Stock market

It is known as a market for a social institution that emerges when a link between suppliers (known as sellers) and eventual buyers (ie buyers) is initiated, which interact with the purpose of making exchanges, transactions or agreements.

Stock market

A value, on the other hand, is something that has an estimate. The term, in economic or financial sense, is used as a synonym for title or action (to mention, in this context, the rights as owner that someone treasures in relation to a certain society).

Based on these definitions, the notion of market or stock exchange can be presented as a phrase describing the capital market that serves as a framework for establishing negotiations related to both fixed and variable income through purchase- Sale focused on any kind of negotiable value.

Both the offerors and the plaintiffs negotiate the securities (which can be from stocks or bonds to bonds, among others) after accessing reliable information on the status of companies. The operation of the stock market allows channeling savings and investment.

The issuers of securities obtain financial resources from the public offering, while those who buy these securities can make a profit either by reselling the shares or by collecting dividends (an amount paid in proportion to the securities held With the profits generated by the company).

It should be noted that the stock market uses various procedures and systems that guarantee its transparency. In this way, it is assumed that there will be no one who can use their power to distort the price of values. It is essential, therefore, that the information circulates freely and that it is truthful.

The Tokyo stock market is the second largest in the world, and the largest in Asia, and is dedicated to trading exclusively shares and securities, both convertible and those that give the right to acquire or subscribe. In order to carry out its negotiations, it is based on a “system of direction and execution of commands assisted by computer”, known by the acronym CORES. More than 2 thousand companies from all over the world are quoted in it, highlighting without doubt the technological and automotive. Among them are the leaders of Honda and Toyota vehicle manufacturing, the powerful and versatile Pioneer and Sony, electronics component manufacturers Kyocera, TDK and Fanuc, the leader in digital imaging Canon and Secom security specialists.

In each country there is an entity that is dedicated to supervise the activities of the stock market, such as Spain, for example, and its National Securities Market Commission, which has been in force since 1988. In all cases, Main objective is to ensure the legitimacy of transactions and protect investors. It should be mentioned that the amount of data that must be analyzed to carry out its activities is freely available to citizens.

Speaking specifically of the Spanish CNMV, this body performs an intense work of international character, which mainly consists of participating in the societies that bring together those who regulate and supervise securities, such as the International Organization of Securities Commissions, and the groups that Cover various sectors, such as insurance and banking services, at the national, continental and global levels.

On the other hand, its competences also reach the advice and the provision of services to the national authorities to improve their collaboration with the bodies of the European Union; Through training programs, ensures an up-to-date look and encourages the various entities of the securities markets to modernize, thus promoting their growth.

An exhibition in New York shows the dark side of American finance

Through newspapers and historical documents, the museum offers visitors a first-hand experience of the ins and outs of some of the history scandals.

Deluxe scammers and the biggest white-glove criminals in US history today star in the Scandal! At the Museum of American Finance in New York, which reviews the darker face of the financial world of this country.

Through newspapers and historical documents, the museum offers visitors first-hand insight into the ins and outs of some of the most shocking financial scandals in American society, from the first crack of the New York Stock Exchange to the Bankruptcy of Enron. All the characters in the exhibition have played tragic chapters of the US economy, mixing elements of greed and corruption typical of film productions that have undermined investor confidence.

Among the “illustrious” protagonists of the show are Bernard Madoff, who is serving 150 years in prison for committing one of the biggest scams in history, or William Duer (1743-1799), former Treasury Secretary and one of Who were responsible for the first Wall Street crisis in 1792. Duer, the forerunner of the financial picaresque in the United States, created a system to speculate with government funds and reached such a magnitude that, when the scam was uncovered, he was imprisoned and New Yorkers arrived To surround the prison to the cry of “we will take to Duer, he took our money”.

Leena Akhtar, director of exhibitions and archives at the museum, said today that the latest financial scandals have been a challenge for the institution since most of the material available is virtual, such as emails or electronic transactions. Akhtar explained that to portray the Lehman Brothers scandal the museum counted on the donation by its creator of the statuettes with which the investment bank rewarded the employees who participated in great economic agreements, before declaring itself bankrupt on the 15th Of September 2008 and thus precipitate a crisis that made the financial system tremble all over the world.

Madoff’s personal objects

In addition to these figurines, the exhibition has other curious objects among which stand out different personal objects of financier Madoff, like a baseball bat that has inscribed the name of the investment firm with which he swindled thousands of people, or some balls Golf and other sports equipment.
Nor could the fraudster who gave name to the famous “Ponzi scheme” the system he used to defraud both Madoff and thousands more financiers in the history of this country. Charles Ponzi, an Italian immigrant from Ravenna who settled in Boston in 1911, took his greatest blow in 1919 after discovering that he could get a fortune by trading in the coupons his compatriots sent by letter from the United States to relatives in Italy.

Thus, Ponzi initiated a pyramid scheme of scam similar to the one that later used Madoff, that was to distribute coupons between the poor immigrant families promising a profits of the 50 percent that materialized thanks to the money that new investors gave to him. Even the most scandalous case was “Scandal Oil” (1963) in which Allied Crude Vegetable Oil obtained numerous loans, making banks believe that their ships carried oil, when in fact they only carried water with a minimum proportion of fat.

The small amount of oil that carried the tanks and floated in the water managed to deceive the inspectors who inspected the boats and caused losses of more than 150 million dollars to companies like American Express or Bank of America, who had granted loans. With its extensive review of these and other scandals, which can be visited for a whole year, the New York museum allows to understand that recent scandals that have grabbed the front pages of newspapers around the world are not a novelty in the financial world.